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On this day in 1945 the U.S Army and Marines make their amphibious assault against the Japanese on the Pacific Island of Iwo Jima. “Operation Detachment’s” aim was to capture the entire island and the three crucial airfields. This operation was vital in ensuring the U.S had tactical capability to strike the Japanese mainland with their B-29 bombers. 23,000 Japanese were dug in to the volcanic rock like a tic with a complex network of tunnels, dugouts and caves making the already fierce defenders a nightmare to evict.
Before the landings the island was heavily bombarded from sea, air superiority ensured 7,000 tonnes of explosive was dropped to provide support to the invasion. Once on the beaches the volcanic ash made it impossible for effective foxholes (dugouts) to be made for protection turning the beach into a hellish and brutal place to be.
Over the coming weeks those on Iwo Jima experienced some of the most bloody fighting in the whole of the war. U.S soldiers who managed to secure objectives would be subject to huge banzai charges under the cover of night, whilst the Japanese in strongly held positions were flushed out through the use of grenades and flamethrowers in the hot sun.
By the end of the battle most of the Japanese garrison would be killed with only 1,000 surrendering (2 more would surrender on 6th January 1949) along with 6,800 Allies killed in action.